The third kingdom of Nebuchadnezzar’s image:
This is the kingdom of the Greeks, the “belly and thighs of brass.” Here is the timeline for the Greeks. Their empire lasted for a little over 260 years. By the end of the greek empire, Daniel's image of a man covers some 537 Years. Daniel 11, for the most part concerns the Grecian Empire, one that terminates with Antiochus of Ascalon in the year 68 B.C. In this chapter, it pays a great deal of attention to Alexander (the he-goat having a great horn), a horn that would soon be broken. It would be followed by the four notable ones; they representing Alexander’s 4 generals: Seleucus 1 Nictor; Lyasimacus; Cassander and Ptolemy.
Alexander the Great defeats the Persians armies between the years 333 B.C. and 331 B.C.
1. Alexander visits Jerusalem in 332 B.C.
2. Onias was High Priest of Israel in 330 B.C.
3. Alexander dies a sudden death in 323 B.C.
4. The four generals go to war, and two Ptolemy and Seleucid come away victorious.
5. Ptolemy took the Southern part of the kingdom and ruled from Egypt in 323 B.C.
6. Seleucid took the Northern kingdom and ruled from both Antioch and Seleucia.
7. Antigonus is defeated by Seleucus in 312 B.C.
8. Seleucid became king over Babylonia, Media, and Syria in 305 B.C.
9. Ptolemy is proclaimed king in 304 B.C.
10. Ptolemy 1st died in 282 B.C.
11. Seleucid’s Empire was a Hellenistic state and ruled by the Seleucid dynasty form 312 B.C. to 63 B.C.
12. Daniel’s prophesy goes on to describe a little horn, coming from one of the four notable ones. That one notable one was Selencus 1 Nictor.
13. In the year 281 B.C. Selencus 1 Nector successfully consolidated the whole of the kingdom of Alexander’s conquests. Selencus built many Greek like cities and Hellenized many areas in Asia Minor; the Middle East including Israel. He establishing the Greek language throughout his kingdom; the language God chose to have the words of the New Testament published.
14. Selencus 1 Nictor was murdered in 281 B.C. on the eve of his success by the man he supported on the Egyptian throne, Ptolemy Keraunos.
15. From the king’s loins came generations of tyrants; sons and grandsons who would increase in the growth of the little horn prophesied by Daniel that would wax great.
16. The first was Antiochus 1 Soter born 324, died 262. He took power after his father was assassinated at the age of 62 in the year 281 B.C.
17. During the successive reigns of those who followed after the king came his son, Antiochus I.
18. He was followed by Antiochus 2, who called himself (theos = God in Greek) born 287, died 246 B.C. He organized an empire-wide cult, as suggested by his epithet; Theo’s (God.) After his death, he would be succeeded by his son Seleucus 2ed.
19. Then we have Antiochus III, the son of Seleucus II, Born 242, died in 187 B.C. at the age of 55. He led the war against Rome in the wake of his expansion in Anatolia, and despite the wise advice of Hannibal Barca. So, he decided not to follow it and was defeated at the Battle of Magnesia at Sipylum in 190 B.C. The Roman’s drove him back to Asia Minor and the consequences of the peace treaty with Rome that followed led the kingdom into ruin. Antiochos III died in 187 BCE during a campaign in the East. His death marked the end of the Seleucid Empire as a great power.
20. Antiochus 4th Epiphanes is historically known for his desecration of the Temple in Jerusalem. Born 215, died 164 B.C. King of the Hellenistic Syrian Kingdom from 175 until 164 B.C. He was an able and popular ruler best known for his encouragement of Greek influences, during the course of which he inadvertently promoted the creation of the important independent Jewish state of the Maccabees, or Hasmoneans.
He served as a hostage in Rome for 14 years after his father’s defeat (190—189) by the Romans. On his release he ousted the usurper Heliodorus and ascended the Syrian throne. He occupied almost all of Egypt in 169 and again in 168, but the Romans forced him to evacuate the kingdom. Antiochus then made war conquering the Jewish stronghold of Jerusalem and attempted to Hellenize the city. In 166 B.C. Judas Maccabeus raised the Jewish rebellion that eventually led to the formation of an independent Jewish state. Many refer to Antiochus 4th as an antichrist, but this cannot be because Christ had not yet been born. Also, he never claimed to be the Messiah of the Jews; he just hated Jews.
21. He was followed by, Antiochus Eupator who was nine years old when his father died, leaving him to sit as king over the kingdom of Syria.
22. His son Antiochus V. followed; he ruling from 173 – 162 B.C.
23. Antiochus 7th Sidetes ruled form 159 – 129 B.C., captured Jerusalem in 135-134 B.C., then razed Jerusalem’s walls.
24. Antiochus of Ascalon was the last of this line. He died in 68 B.C., thus ending the generational rule of the Seleucid dynasty.
25. When Rome came to power, they divided the region into four smaller republics, and in 146 BC Macedonia officially became a province, with its capital at Thessalonica. The remainder of the Greek city-states gradually and in due course payed homage to Rome ending the Greeks power of self-government. The Romans left local administration to the Greeks without making any attempt to abolish traditional political patterns. Also, the place of assembly in Athens continued to be the center of civic and political life.