Admittedly I'm not well-versed on actual Calvinist writing.
Brother. this may help some: Calvinism, Arminianism, and the Truth Introduction
Truth depends entirely and only on the written revelation of the Bible (Ps 119:98-100,128; Isaiah 8:20; Galatians 1:6-9; II Tim 3:16-17). What is highly esteemed among men is an abomination with God, so reject men (Luke 6:26; 16:15; I Cor 1:19-20; 3:19-20).
It is often difficult to go against the wisdom of the ancients and their presumed brilliance (Job 32:1-14; I Tim 6:3-5,20-21).
Calvinism and Arminianism represent two great camps of “Christendom” that we are outside of in our desire to stick to scripture alone. Historically and doctrinally, we are outside that great religious movement known as the Protestant Reformation, for it is still Roman. Currently, we are outside the great body of modern “Christianity,” for it is fulfilling the prophecy of Paul (II Timothy 3:1 – 4:5).
Calvinism broadly used is a comprehensive theological system, but we shall limit ourselves to consider salvation unto eternal life.
Since John Calvin, Martin Luther, and other reformers did not return all the way to apostolic Christianity, we shall find Romanism. They did not expunge the sacramentalism, the ritualism, the form, the ministerial elite, the worldly education, the state church, etc. Calvin and most Calvinists are in error on the subjects (infants), mode (sprinkling), and purpose (covenant guarantee) of baptism. They are in error on the purpose (convey literal or spiritual Jesus) and interpretation (not a metaphor) of the Lord’s Supper. They are in error on the relationship of the first two Persons in the Trinity, as they teach Jesus Christ is a begotten God. They are in error on the identity of the church and the form of local church government, tracing themselves back to Rome. They are in error on the relationship of the church to civil authority and government, as they love to create state churches.
It is often called the Reformed faith, but Jesus Christ and His apostles reformed His church (Luke 16:16; John 4:21-24; Heb 9:10). Rome cannot be reformed, for it is the great whore, the habitation of devils, and the hold of every foul spirit (Rev 17:1-6; 18:2).
Yet, we are thankful for ancient and modern Calvinists that assisted in our conversion from Arminianism to the truth of the gospel.
Since we deny freewill and teach God is sovereign in salvation by election and predestination, we are often accused of being Calvinists. For those not very knowledgeable or intending only the scheme of salvation, we may at certain times allow that we are Calvinists.
However, we are hyper-Calvinists regarding salvation, for we teach regeneration before faith, a different purpose for faith and the gospel, and the definite possibility of
God’s elect backsliding into sin and having their faith overthrown (but not losing eternal life). Arminianism
Arminianism essentially is a complete system of conditional salvation based upon man using inherent ability to perform conditions for it. It is not improperly called theistic humanism – it glorifies man as the determiner of his destiny and yet tries to glorify God as well. God is limited by man’s concept of fairness: man is a very capable creature still, and he must be in total control of his destiny. It begins with human rationalization about God that is comforting to the flesh rather than with God’s own revelation of Himself.
In general, this is a very palatable theology, in that it makes man precious, God uncontrollably in love, and salvation for the taking.
Arminianism will degenerate to modernism or other heresies, for God is lenient, and the need to save the lost justifies any means. Arminianism began with Satan’s lie in the Garden of Eden to Adam and Eve, which contradicted God’s revelation and damned the race. In defiance and denial of God’s revelation, Satan convinced Eve that she would not surely die if she ate of the fruit (Genesis 3:1-4). Satan convinced her that she could sacramentally become just like God by her own personal act in taking the fruit (Genesis 3:5-6).
Consider that Armininians today still try to peddle the lie that man is not dead by his sin in Eden, just like their father the devil. Adam and Eve, just like Arminians today, sewed fig leaves together in their own vain attempt to cover their terrible sin (Gen 3:7). It showed itself in the New Testament with proud Jews and skeptical Greeks (Luk 4:25-29; John 6:64-66; 8:33-34; Rom 3:5,8; 9:14,19).
Pelagius, a Welsh monk, began the systematic spread of Pelagianism, an early version of Arminianism, around the early 400’s. He denied original sin, a depraved nature, representation by either Adam or Christ, and the need for special grace to be saved. He held the innocence of human children, man’s freedom of will, and the possibility of achieving perfection in this life.
The Roman Catholics declared very Arminian principles at the Council of Trent in 1546 i.e. maintaining freewill and sacramentalism. Read the anathemas pronounced in the Sixth Session of Trent against God’s grace in salvation and the freewill of man.
Augustus Toplady, the author of the hymn “Rock of Ages,” exposed the close connection of Arminianism to Rome.
James Arminius (1560-1609) began the systematic spread of Arminianism in the early 1600s, as he rebelled against state Calvinism. As a university professor in Leiden, Arminius questioned Calvin’s theology in several points, publishing and preaching against it. In 1610, his followers issued a remonstrance to the government of Holland against the Calvinistic doctrine of the state church. Man is not so corrupted by sin that he is unable to cooperate with God in performing conditions for his salvation to eternal life. Man’s election to salvation is conditional upon God forseeing his faith and perseverance and confirming him thereby to eternal life. Jesus Christ’s death potentially provided for the salvation of all men upon conditions, but it did not surely secure salvation for any. Man is able to resist the work of the Holy Spirit in applying the effects of Christ’s death to men, as salvation is only an offer. The conditions for final salvation include continuing in faith and good works until death, for sin will cause you to lose salvation.
Since Arminius, John Wesley, Charles Finney, D.L. Moody, Billy Graham, Jack Hyles, Benny Hinn, Joel Osteen, and many more past and present like them have taught decisional regeneration as the deciding issue that renders the love of God and death of Christ effective. Calvinism
Calvinism essentially is a complete system of salvation based unconditionally upon God, Who will cause man to fulfill his conditions. It is not improperly called theistic fatalism – it subordinates means to predestination and logically undermines human responsibility.
It brings from Romanism several of the features of sacramental salvation and eventually reduces exertion through secondary means.
Calvinism also began in Eden, when Adam and Eve each blamed God indirectly for their sin in eating the fruit (Genesis 3:8-13).
Augustine of the Catholic Church was the counterpart of Pelagius and opposed him with his predestinarian system called Augustianism.
John Calvin (1509-1564) further systematized the theology that would come to bear his name, though T.U.L.I.P originated in Holland.
The Synod of Dordt (1618-1619) was held by the government of Holland to legally settle the issue of Calvinism versus Arminianism. It totally rejected the five main points of the Arminians from their remonstrance of 1610 and answered with five points of its own.
The acrostic TULIP – Total depravity, Unconditional election, Limited atonement, Irresistible grace, and Perseverance of the saints. Man is totally depraved, unable to cooperate with God, a captive of the devil, and his will is entirely under the bondage of sin. God unconditionally elected some of mankind to salvation in spite of their rebellion according to His own purpose and grace. Jesus Christ’s death by intent and application is limited to the elect only, and every single one of them will be certainly saved. The work of the Holy Spirit in applying Jesus Christ’s death to the elect in regeneration and conversion is irresistible by the elect. God effectually and sovereignly causes the elect to persevere in faith and good works so that they cannot be lost but will be saved.
After Calvin came John Owen, John Gill, Jonathan Edwards, Charles Hodge, Arthur Pink, and many more past and present like them. Most people today associate Calvinism with Presbyterianism, which gives it lip service with their Westminster Confession of Faith. The Truth
The truth distinguishes between unconditional and conditional aspects of God’s salvation, dividing between God’s work and our duty.
Arminianism in its five points is totally rejected as unscriptural and blasphemous against the intentions and accomplishments of Christ.
Man is neither free nor able to cooperate with God for salvation (John 3:3; 8:43,47; 10:26; Rom 8:7-8 I Cor 2:14; Eph 2:1-3).
God’s foreknowledge in election did not find any conditions met; it was of persons, not actions (Psalm 14:1-3; 53:1-3; Rom 8:29).
Jesus Christ’s death accomplished salvation for His elect; it did not merely make it possible (Matt 1:21 Rom 5:10; Hebrews 9:15).
The Holy Spirit’s work in applying salvation through regeneration is effectual and sure (John 3:8; Eph 1:19; Titus 3:5; I Pet 1:2).
The elect cannot be lost nor separated from the purpose of God in salvation (John 6:38-39; Rom 8:28-39; II Timothy 2:16-19).
Calvinism may be accepted in its first three points as scriptural and according to the truth of the gospel as preached by brother Paul. Man’s nature is totally corrupt since Eden, rendering him without desire or ability to know or please God in any way for salvation. God’s election of some men to eternal life is based purely on the good pleasure of His will in spite of their foreseen evil rebellion. Jesus Christ died only for the elect, and He will not lose a single one of those that the Father gave Him to fully and finally redeem.
However, Calvinism errs with its point of Irresistable Grace, for they apply it to the gospel and conversion, which is farther than truth. They apply irresistible grace, or what they name the “effectual call,” to the preaching of the gospel in the case of all the elect. They believe that all the elect will hear and believe the gospel sometime during their lives and cannot be saved without these things. This is sacramental salvation, for unless the “priest” carries the grace of God’s gospel to the elect, they cannot be saved without it. They must therefore invent all sorts of alternative theories to cover the salvation of infants, idiots, heathen, the deaf and blind, etc. Of course, they rarely define what they mean by “saving faith,” or they would make it to loose, or limit the elect to just a very few.
The typical Calvinist, even John Calvin and Jonathan Edwards, seldom differentiate clearly between regeneration and conversion. God’s grace is definitely irresistible when it comes to regeneration, but conversion by the gospel depends on preacher and hearer.
The first of the acts is God’s work in salvation, and the second is the information and news concerning it for the comfort of the elect.
Saints must make war with their hearers, for conversion is and always has been a struggle against the resistance of the saints.
However, Calvinism errs with its point of Final Perseverance, for they end up with a fatalist doctrine of men incapable of backsliding. Persevering is man’s action. If God guarantees man’s perseverance, then he will continue in faith and good works without fail. This fatalistic doctrine, if logically followed, would render the New Testament epistles and the work of the ministry unnecessary. If by final perseverance the Calvinist means God will not lose any of His elect, then why not call it preservation like the Bible? God will preserve His saints so that not one will be lost and all make it safely to heaven, but He has not guaranteed their faithfulness.
This is a brief overall comparison between them. The outline is not mine but a friend (Jonathan Crosby letgodbetrue.com) I have known for almost my entire walk with God and on this doctrine we agree almost 100% . Since I have no time today I copy and posted this with his permission. I have a similar outline but not where I can copy and paste.