The New Covenant of God.
God said In Jer. 31:32 Not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt; which my covenant they brake, although I was an husband unto them, saith the Lord:
33 But this shall be the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel; After those days, saith the Lord, I will put my law in their inward parts, and write it in their hearts; and will be their God, and they shall be my people.
34 And they shall teach no more every man his neighbour, and every man his brother, saying, Know the Lord: for they shall all know me, from the least of them unto the greatest of them, saith the Lord: for I will forgive their iniquity, and I will remember their sin no more.
So the question I asked is, what covenant would then be made old by this New Covenant?
According to scriptures, it is the covenant that God made with the house of Israel in the day that God took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt (Hebrews 8:7-13); which covenant they brake; whose mediator was Moses. I'll refer to this covenant from hereon as the Old Covenant.
The New Covenant had replaced the Old Covenant. It is a new covenant of God with the house of Israel as described and prophesied in Jer.31:31-34. That prophecy was fulfilled at the time of Jesus Christ.
The Old Covenant.
What was the Old covenant about? How was it established or how did it came about?
After the great flood in Noah's time, God had by grace, chosen Abram, whose father was Terah, and was worshiping other gods. It is clear, God had chosen him not because of anything Abraham had done, but by His grace and according to His will and purpose. God had spoken this promise to Abraham which goes: "I will make of thee a great nation, and I will bless thee, and make thy name great; and thou shalt be a blessing: And I will bless them that bless thee, and curse him that curseth thee: and in thee shall all families of the earth be blessed. (Gen. 12:2-3)" As with His choosing of Abraham, His promise is independent upon anything and is by grace. If you'll look at it, such promise, while it is given to Abraham, it is really not only a blessing to Abraham, but to his seed, even all families of the earth shall be blessed.
Now, in view of God's purpose in Abraham, God established His covenant with Abraham, with Isaac, with Jacob, and with the children of Israel (Exodus 6:4). Having said that, it gives us understanding that in the process of bringing about His purpose, God made covenant promises to Isaac, to Jacob, to the children of Israel, confirming His promise to Abraham.
This is God's covenant with Abraham:
Genesis 15:13 And he said unto Abram, Know of a surety that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs, and shall serve them; and they shall afflict them four hundred years;
14 And also that nation, whom they shall serve, will I judge: and afterward shall they come out with great substance.
18 In the same day the Lord made a covenant with Abram, saying, Unto thy seed have I given this land, from the river of Egypt unto the great river, the river Euphrates:
The land spoken of in Gen.15:18 is the land of Canaan (Gen. 12:5-7).
Jumping forward to God's covenant with the children of Israel, them who were spoken about in Gen. 15:13:
Exodus 6:3 And I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, by the name of God Almighty, but by my name Jehovah was I not known to them.
4 And I have also established my covenant with them, to give them the land of Canaan, the land of their pilgrimage, wherein they were strangers.
5 And I have also heard the groaning of the children of Israel, whom the Egyptians keep in bondage; and I have remembered my covenant.
6 Wherefore say unto the children of Israel, I am the Lord, and I will bring you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians, and I will rid you out of their bondage, and I will redeem you with a stretched out arm, and with great judgments:
7 And I will take you to me for a people, and I will be to you a God: and ye shall know that I am the Lord your God, which bringeth you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians.
8 And I will bring you in unto the land, concerning the which I did swear to give it to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob; and I will give it you for an heritage: I am the Lord.
Regarding this covenant, this is what scriptures said:
Exodus 12:51 And it came to pass the selfsame day, that the Lord did bring the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt by their armies.
And so, God fulfilled his covenant with the children of Israel in bringing them out of Egypt. But that is not all that God will do with the children of Israel. He brought them out to bring them to the promised land of Canaan and will take them to Him for a people, and will be to them a God (Exodus 6:8).
Exodus 19:5 Now therefore, if ye will obey my voice indeed, and keep my covenant, then ye shall be a peculiar treasure unto me above all people: for all the earth is mine: 6 And ye shall be unto me a kingdom of priests, and an holy nation. These are the words which thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel. 7 And Moses came and called for the elders of the people, and laid before their faces all these words which the Lord commanded him. 8 And all the people answered together, and said, All that the Lord hath spoken we will do. And Moses returned the words of the people unto the Lord.
From the above quoted scriptures, we can see a condition set forth by God unto the children of Israel concerning His covenant with them, that is, if they will obey His voice indeed, and keep His covenant, they shall be a peculiar treasure unto God above all people; and they shall be unto God a kingdom of priests, and an holy nation (Exodus 19:5-6). And the children of Israel agreed.
Considering God's making them of a holy nation and a kingdom of priests, there is the giving them of a land as their possession, that is, Canaan, where they will be established as a nation. But that will not be all there is in making them to be a holy nation. Now, they evidently were a sinful people, unruly and understandably unguided because of no less than 400 years long of being in slavery and oppression in Egypt, by a pagan people and culture, no less. With that, during their exodus from Egypt to the land of promise, that is while they were in the wilderness, God gave them His ten commandments, judgments, and many other precepts, not only to individually transform them, but also collectively as a nation. In Exodus 24:3-4, we read, "And Moses came and told the people all the words of the Lord, and all the judgments: and all the people answered with one voice, and said, All the words which the Lord hath said will we do. And Moses wrote all the words of the Lord, and rose up early in the morning, and builded an altar under the hill, and twelve pillars, according to the twelve tribes of Israel.".
Exodus 24:7 And he took the book of the covenant, and read in the audience of the people: and they said, All that the Lord hath said will we do, and be obedient. 8 And Moses took the blood, and sprinkled it on the people, and said, Behold the blood of the covenant, which the Lord hath made with you concerning all these words.
And so, in Exodus 24:7, Israel affirms the covenant and in verse 8, Moses formally ratified the (Mosaic) Covenant. After which God gave them, through Moses, directions, instructions, ordinances, involving the Sanctuary, Ark of the Covenant, Table for the Showbread, Gold Lampstand, Tabernacle, Altar of Burnt Offering, Court of the Tabernacle, Care of the Lampstand, Garments for the Priesthood, Ephod, Breastplate, Other Priestly Garments, Consecration of the priests in the order of Aaron, service of the priests, sign of the Sabbath.
Considering now God's making them for Him, a kingdom of priests, included in the precepts He gave them, written in the book of the law, God had established a formal priesthood, in the order of Aaron, the Levitical priesthood. In the office of this priesthood (order of Aaron), includes all the duties and services pertaining to the keeping of the earthly sanctuary, worship, offerings, atonement of sin, and the teaching of all the precepts of the Law to the house of Israel. The keeping and observance of this is what would suppose to make them for God a kingdom of priests.
These are all part of the covenant that God made with the children of Israel during the Exodus. These precepts, He caused Moses to put in writing in a book, the book of the law. All these precepts then is what became to be the law for them, as a nation. The keeping and observance of the law is what would suppose to make them for God unto a holy nation and a kingdom of priests.
What happened next?
Not for long, during the exodus from Egypt to the promised land Canaan, the children of Israel had broken the covenant with God (Exod. 32). God's wrath was upon them who had corrupted themselves. God offered to destroy all the rebellious Israelites that day. But Moses had obtained God's promise to renew the covenant bond with Israel, though they were a stiff-necked people. We see what God did in Exodus 34: God directed him to restore the covenant revelation, by having the Ten Commandments re-inscribed on two new stone tablets, and had given a more restrictive laws of the Code of the Priests (Exodus 35-Lev. 16), the office of the priesthood exclusively given to the loyal sons of Levi, the Levites.
That is the Old covenant, according to my reading of scriptures.
As did the noble Bereans during the time of the apostles, searched the Scriptures daily to find out whether the things preached to them were so, so do likewise and find out.
And so, the Old Covenant that was replaced by the New Covenant, is the covenant that God made with the children of Israel whose mediator was Moses, in the day when God led them out of Egypt, about which all precepts were written by Moses in the book of the law, wherein is contained the law of Moses that was given by God in covenant, which includes the laws, commandments, statutes, ordinances, judgments, curses, blessings, and everything that concerns the Levitical priesthood.
It came to pass, the time of the New Covenant came. That was about the time when the mediator of the New Covenant came, that is, Jesus Christ. During the time between the establishment of the Old Covenant and the coming of Jesus Christ, God found fault with the children of Israel. They continued not in God's covenant (Hebrews 8:9).
Hebrews 8:7 For if that first covenant had been faultless, then should no place have been sought for the second.
8 For finding fault with them, he saith, Behold, the days come, saith the Lord, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah:
9 Not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day when I took them by the hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt; because they continued not in my covenant, and I regarded them not, saith the Lord.
10 For this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, saith the Lord; I will put my laws into their mind, and write them in their hearts: and I will be to them a God, and they shall be to me a people:
11 And they shall not teach every man his neighbour, and every man his brother, saying, Know the Lord: for all shall know me, from the least to the greatest.
12 For I will be merciful to their unrighteousness, and their sins and their iniquities will I remember no more.
13 In that he saith, A new covenant, he hath made the first old. Now that which decayeth and waxeth old is ready to vanish away.
There was fault with the people, the priests and the common Jews alike. The New Covenant, needless to point out, among others, was made, to deal with the fault, and bring about God's purpose for Israel, in view of fulfilling God's promise to Abraham.
So, the Old Covenant, with all that constitutes it, were replaced more than 2000 years ago (time of Jesus), by the New Covenant of God with the house of Israel whose mediator is Jesus Christ (Heb.8:6, Heb. 12:24), with every part that constitutes the former made new into something far better.
How is it far better? Let me just point out some.
In the old covenant, God's laws, were embodied in numerous and various precepts written in stone, in a book. In the new covenant, God writes His laws directly in the mind and heart of the people. In the Old, the teachers of the law were the Levite priests, men which have infirmity, corruptible. In the New, the teacher is the Holy Spirit no less. In the Old, the people follow what the book of the law tells them what good they ought to do. In the New, the people will follow from what the Holy Spirit who dwells in them (in their mind and heart), tells them what good they ought to do. In the Old, the people follow according to the letter of the law. In the latter, the people will follow according to the Spirit. In the Old, the people have as high priest, imperfect men which have infirmity and can't able to continue by reason of death. In the New, the people have a great high priest (Jesus Christ), who is holy, harmless, undefiled, separate from sinners, and made higher than the heavens, who continueth forever. In the Old, there was an earthly sanctuary. In the New, there is the heavenly sanctuary. And so much more better things, for in the Old are shadows, while in the New, the realities.