Just as the three most important considerations in buying real estate are location, location and location, the three most significant concerns in interpreting a biblical text are context, context and context.
Isaiah 14:12–15 is nestled among a series of oracles aimed primarily at foreign nations, including Moab, Philistia, Damascus and Egypt (Isaiah 13–23). Our poem (Isaiah 14:12–15) is part of the first oracle, which predicts the fall of Babylon (Isaiah 13–14). The second half of the prophecy (Isaiah 14:3–23) is clearly labeled a “taunt against the king of Babylon” (Isaiah 14:3–4). As we shall see, “Lucifer,” or “morning star,” as used by Isaiah, is not another name for Satan but a metaphorical reference to this Babylonian ruler.
The taunting poem heaps scorn and ridicule upon the leader. The nations he has oppressed burst forth into singing (Isaiah 14:4–7). Even nature—including cypress trees and the cedars of Lebanon—rejoices at the king’s fall (Isaiah 14:8). The spirits of deceased kings are symbolically pictured as greeting the Babylonian king when he arrives in the netherworld (Isaiah 14:9). They point out that he is just as powerless—indeed, just as dead—as they themselves are: “You too have become as weak as we! You have become like us!” (Isaiah 14:10–11).
However: "We can no longer insist that “lucifer” is a proper noun referring primarily to Satan. As Robert Alden writes: “The king of Babylon is gone and heard from no more. Not so Satan. His ‘fall’ marked the beginning of his wicked reign. The king of Babylon’s fall marked the end of his wicked reign. Lucifer cannot be Satan.”
"Babylon has been applied to political and religious stood as the embodiment of worldly corruption and evil. In New Testament times, for example, Babylon came to be identified with Rome and its hostility toward early Christians.
Babylon’s king in Isaiah 14 embodied satanic power, and he may well be understood as prefiguring the “beast” (Revelation 13:1–3) and the Babylon of the last days—the harlot who rides the beast, corrupts kings, and drinks the blood of saints and martyrs (Revelation 17:3–8). It is striking indeed that the ruins of the latter-day “Babylon” are pictured as a “home for demons and a haunt for every unclean spirit” (Revelation 18:2). The Devil fell, falls and will fall again. God Most High can always be counted on to overwhelm the demonic powers of every Babylon, whether earthly or heavenly.14
“Lucifer” is fallen, in more ways than one.https://www.baslibrary.org/bible-review/14/6/15