This thread was inspired by a comment in another thread that the baptism question could be settled if everyone would simply follow the historic teaching of the Church regarding infant baptism. So I looked up some references in the Fathers to infant baptism.
Evidence which seems to be against it:
HERMAS (fl. 140/155)
Those who believed are such as these: They are like innocent infants, in whose heart no wickedness enters and who do not know what is evil but always remain in innocence. Such as these will undoubtedly live in the kingdom of God because in no way did they defile the commandments of God but innocently remained in the same frame of mind all the days of their life. As many of you then who will continue and be as infants, with no wickedness, will be more honored than all others, for all infants are honored before God and are in the first rank before him. Blessed are all of you, therefore, who remove evil from yourselves and put on guiltlessness. (Similitudes IX. xxix. 1-3)
BARNABAS (late first, early second centuries)
Since he renewed us in the forgiveness of sins, he made us into another image, so as to have the soul of children, as if he were indeed refashioning us. (6:11)
ARISTIDES (c. 140s)
And when a child has been born to one of them [Christians], they give thanks to God; and if it should die as an infant, they give thanks the more, because it has departed life sinless. (Apology 15:11)
ATHENAGORAS OF ATHENS (c. 177)
Although all human beings who die are resurrected, not all those resurrected are judged. If justice in the judgment were the only cause of the resurrection, it would follow, of course, that those who have not sinned nor done good, namely quite young children, would not be resurrected. (On the Resurrection 14)
IRENAEUS OF LYON (ca. 135-c. 202)
Who were those who were saved and received the inheritance? Those, obviously, who believed in God and kept their love for him, such as Caleb son of Jephunneh and Joshua son of Nun, and innocent children, who have no sense of evil. Who are those now who are saved and receive eternal life? Is it not those who love God and believe his promises and \"in malice have become little children\"? (Against Heresies IV.xxviii.3)
Evidence which supports it:
IRENAEUS OF LYON (c. 135-c. 202)
For he came to save all by means of himself-all, I say, who by him are born again to God-infants, children, adoloescents, young men, and old men (Against Heresies II.xxii.4)
TERTULLIAN of CARTHAGE (c. 155-c. 250)
According to the circumstances and nature, and also age, of each person, the delay of baptism is more suitable, especially in the case of small children. What is the necessity, if there is no such necessity, for the sponsors as well to be brought into danger, since they may fail to keep their promises by reason of death or be deceived by an evil disposition which grows up in the child? The Lord indeed says, \"Do not forbid them to come unto me.\" Let them \"come\" then while they are growing up, while they are learning, while they are instructed why they are coming. Let them become Christians when they are able to know Christ. In what sense does the innocent period of life hasten to the remission of sins? Should we act more cautiously in worldly matters, so that divine things are given to those to whom earthly property is not given? Let them learn to ask for salvation so that you may be seen to have given \"to him who asks.\" (On Baptism 18) NOTE: Tertullian here is arguing against the practice of infant baptism.
HIPPOLYTUS OF ROME (d. 235)
And they shall baptise the little children first. And if they can answer for themselves, let them answer. But if they cannot, let their parents answer or someone from their family. And next they shall baptise the grown men; and last the women. (Apostolic Tradition xxi.3-5)
ORIGEN OF ALEXANDRIA (b.185-fl. c. 200-254)
I take this occasion to discuss something which our brothers often inquire about. Infants are baptized for the remission of sins. Of what kinds? Or when did they sin? But since \"No one is exempt from stain,\" one removes stain by the mystery of baptism. For this reason infants also are baptized. For \"Unless one is born of water and the Spirit he cannot enter the kingdom of heaven.' (Homily on Luke XIV:5)
CYPRIAN OF CARTHAGE (fl. 248-258)
If, when they afterwards come to believe, forgiveness of sins is granted even to the worst transgressors and to those who have previously sinned much against God, and if no one is held back from baptism and grace; how much less ought an infant to be held back, who having been born recently has not sinned, except in that being born physically according to Adam, he has contracted the contagion of the ancient death by his first birth. He approaches that much more easily to the reception of the forgiveness of sins because the sins remitted to him are not his own, biut those of another. (Epistle 58 )
Eusebius, an infant, going to the place of the saints, being without sin through his age, rests in peace.
Sweet Tyche lived one year, ten months, fifteen days, Received [grace] on the eighth day before the kalends. Gave up [her soul] on the same day.
Postumius Eutenion, a believer, who obtained holy grace the day before his birthday at a very late hour and died. He lived six years and was buried on the fith of Ides of July on the day of Jupiter on which he was born. His soul is with the saints in peace. Felicissimus, Eutheria, and Festa his grandmother to their worthy son Postumius. - Early 4th century.
Irene who lived with her parents ten months and six days recived [grace] seven days before the Ides of April and gave up [her soul] on the Ides of April.
To the sacred divine dead. Florentius made this monument to his worthy son Appronianus, who lived one year, nine months, and five days. Since he was dearly loved by his grandmother, and she saw that he was going to die, she asked from the church that he might depart from the world a believer. - 3rd century
Pastor, Titiana, Marciana, and Chreste made this for Marcianus, their worthy son in Christ, who lived twelve years, two months, and . . . days, who received [grace] on the twelfth day before the Kalends of October, Marianus and Paternus the second time being consuls, and gave up [his soul] on the eleventh day before the Kalends. Live among the saints in eternity. - AD 268
Innocent, the neophyte, lived twenty-three years.
To Paulinus, the neophyte, in peace, who lived eight years.
To Proiecto, neophyte infant, who lived two years seven months.
To the worthy Antonia Cyriaceti who lived nineteen years, two months, twenty-six days. Recieved the grace of God and died a virgin on the fourth day. Julius Benedictus her father set this up for his most sweet and incomparable daughter. Twelfth of Kalends of December. - AD 363
These quotations are taken from Dr. Everett Ferguson's Early Christians Speak, pp. 55-58.