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In reference to "spirit" and "soul," I suggest you research my recent columns on the subject for a different, and perhaps even better, view. You will find them here on the GraceCentered Forum. Below is a portion of one of those columns.
Here are my observations. Many bodies of the saints were resurrected, not at Jesus’ death, but “after His resurrection.” The names of the saints are not mentioned. As to whom they “appeared to” in Jerusalem is not stated. Nor is it revealed why they were raised and appeared to many. My consensus is that by appearing to many, they demonstrated a future resurrection for all of God’s saints.
Yet there are mysteries associated with this momentous occurrence. Did these resurrected saints die again? We assume they did. But if not, it may have been that they—their spirits or real selves—were simply called from their celestial “residence” to repossess their bodies and appear to many as a manifestation of a collective future resurrection—at which time they then returned to the unseen abode of departed spirits to await the general resurrection.
As to Lazarus, my take is that his spirit, the actual Lazarus, was called from the province of departed spirits and reunited with his biological remains when Jesus summoned both from the tomb.
As I have previously advocated, and demonstrated from many scriptures, the nucleus of a person is his/her spirit. The same was true of Jesus. At biological death He “yielded up His spirit”—the authentic Jesus. His spirit, the real Jesus, “was not abandoned to Hades [unseen abode of departed spirits], nor did His flesh see corruption” [Peter, in Acts 2:31]. Two substances or articles are mentioned here—spirit and flesh. [See Thayer & Strong on “Hades” in Acts 2:31.]
When Steven was being stoned to death by religious sectarians, he cried out, “Lord Jesus, receive my spirit!”—Acts 7:59. “Breath” is not meant here, as per the Greek. Steven’s center or core was his spirit, not his breath or his flesh. A believer’s flesh decays. A believer’s spirit continues to live after physical death.
Do you recall how our Lord was troubled at the tomb of Lazarus? He became very emotional and wept. The record says, “When Jesus saw her [Mary] weeping, and the Jews who had come with her also weeping, He was deeply moved in his spirit and greatly troubled” [John 11:33].
Jesus was both flesh and spirit, as we all are. I looked this verse up in Thayer’s Greek Lexicon, and he details “spirit” as “to strike one’s spirit with fear and dread.” The point is when any of us become troubled, our inner self, the spirit, experiences distress or grieve. We are more than flesh, bones, and blood. We have an inner core called “spirit”—the very essence of a person, for “the body without the spirit is dead” [James 2:26].
The Lord gives us “a spirit of wisdom and of revelation in the knowledge of Him” [Eph. 1:17]. No, not a “breath” of wisdom! Only the inner man—his spirit—can know wisdom and knowledge. His flesh and breathing apparatus are incapable of deciphering or understanding either.